Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a colorless and nontoxic gas that is produced when natural gas (predominantly Methane CH4) is refrigerated to temperatures around – 260°F (-162°C). Natural gas is liquefied for ease of storage and transportation to remote places where pipelines are not available. LNG occupies a volume 600 times less than the natural gas in gaseous state. To ensure a successful liquefaction process, the natural gas is pre-treated to remove CO2, H2S, and H2O and is then refrigerated to the liquefaction temperature and is ready to store and/or transport.
Refrigeration by MCR
The Micro Carbon Residue (MCR) cycle is designed to minimize compression power and is optimized by using a specific refrigerant mixture for a customized plant design. This refrigerant mixture can be compressed to meet the refrigeration requirements.
Our CRYOSYS company has developed a proprietary MCR process which is contained in a perlite filled Cold-Box. This Cold-Box includes the main MCR exchanger, a brazed aluminum heat exchanger for optimal heat transfer, and the flash separation vessels.
This design also incorporates a secondary LNG containment vessel in the unexpected event of an internal leak. The CRYOSYS Cold-Box design is best in class due to the very tight approach temperature and the brazed design which serves to minimize required MR compression.
Comparison Between LNG and other Fuels
|BTU per Gallon||139,000||82,644||91,000|
|Gallon per MMBTU||7.19||12.10||10.99|
|Ignition Temperature (F)||437||1004||842|
|Relative Energy Density||1.68||1.00||1.10|
|Boiling Point (F)||370+||-260||-44|
|Leaks & Spills||puddles||vaporizes||gathers in low areas|
1 LNG Gallon = 82.6 Standard cubic feet of Natural Gas
1 LNG Gallon = 82,644 Btu
1,000,000 Btu / 82,644 Btu per gallon = 12.1 LNG gallons per MMBtu
10,000 Gallons = 826 MCF
1 LNG Tonne = 2,200 lbs / 3.5 = 621 LNG gallons per LNG tonne
1 LNG Road Tanker = 9,500 LNG gallons = 33,670 lbs of LNG = 785 MCF
1.68 Gallons of LNG = 1 Gallon of Diesel (on energy equivalents)
1 LNG Gallon Weighs = 3.5 lbs
Typical LNG Composition = 97mol% C1, 1.5% C2